Wednesday, October 03, 2007

Millennial Challenges: Ethipia's response to the new neocolonization strategy by Donnald Payne and US Congressional Democrats!

Global Strategic Enterprises, Inc for Peace and Prosperity-

Re: Millennial Challenges: Redefining diplomatic relationships and its limitations!

Now HR 2003 has made to to US Congress, there are serious interpretations of how the future relationship of the USA with the Horn and Africa is likely to evolve.

It is becoming evident that the new transformational diplomatic relationship that Dr Condelisa Rice wants the global community to engage in is being challenged by misguided and perhaps misinformed congressional representatives in the Africa Subcommittee of US Congress. Some of these congressmen have dubious track record.

The two most vocal are representatives of the state of New Jersey, whose own track record shows they have questionable background in the area of good governance, democracy and managing conflictual and stressful community situations. New Jersey has the highest rate and unusual number of minority populations in prisons and the evolution of state within state, that is ghetto like deprived communities challenged consistently with criminal gangster rings.

It is ironic that the New Jersey Congressmen felt obliged to side with the Horn gangster and terrorist network of Al-tihad, Al-Islamia, the Shabab-Shabia network of Eritrean and Somali gangsters that are spreading terror from the Mid East into Africa. The track record of the Kenya and Tanzania US Bobmers among this terrorist group is forcing the US to consider Eritrea a terrorist nation.

However, the New Jersey Congressmen (Payne & Smith) are intentionally avoiding the real intelligence that looks similar to the 9/11 Fiasco at the Congress, when they intentionally are trying to ignored the 4/24 terror rings (Eritrean & Somali terrorists) where 77 Chinese and Ethiopian lives were massacred in their sleep.

It looks that the US Congress is likely to miss another opportunity just like 9/11, but friends of Ethiopia and USA are not prepared to ignore such foolishness to come between the people of Ethiopia and the USA as our national interests will prevail. Even if the US Senate passes this bill, it is likely to be vetoed by the President.

The message is clear: before one embarks on punitive and pejorative languages against other nation states and international communities, congressman should look within and review their own track record in their own respective communities. Fist look at yourselves in teh Mirror is the message. This is one of the Sermons on the Mount, and these congressmen should pay attention.

For the record, such level of treasonous activities amongst US Congressmen and Generals has happened. Such challenges are not new for the people of Ethiopia and the US when law makers and law enforcers had betrayed their role and sided with the enemy. Then it was Egyptian and Turkish Terrorists and now it is Eritrean/Somali Terrorist networks.

In 1875 or so, The former defeated generals of the great civil war during President Abraham Lincoln and Emperor Yohannes IV chose to seek such treasonous paths and were defeated twice at the Red Sea Coast of Ethiopia. This time, this two northern Congressmen and their associates will also defeat either in the Senate or the White House. It is critical that they do.

Ethiopia has managed to defeat such misguided American Generals of the South during the time of Abrahan Lincoln and Emperor Johannes the IVth where the southern generals defeated by Abe Lincoln were hired as mercenaries to occupy Ethiopian costs present day Red Sea Coast, with Egyptian and Turkish terrorists.

Unfortunately, like the current intentinally misguided congressmen of New Jersey, who have allowed themselves to be misinformed by the Horn Terrorist Sympathisers and Sleeper Cell Activists, they were defeated at Gunder by the Brilliant General Ras Allula Aba Nega. You can read about them at this web site below.

The US Department of State witness, Dr Jendayl Fraser were consistently stopped in her testimony not to show the strong link between the Eritrean terrorists and the Kenya and Tanzania US Embassy bombers by Congressman Payne who blamed the US for suppoerting some anti-terrorist groups as Lords of Poverty who stood up against the so called Union of Somali Terrorists otherwise known as UIC. It was such a shame how he was abusing his position to influence or gag the US State Department witness to protect his sleeper cell terrorist networks.

One can easily wonder, is this happening in America? the beacon of freedom. He referred to other leaders as thugs and truly he was behaving as one at the testimony. Mirror,Mirror what do I look like what do I sound like is the real question he should ask when he reviews his own testimony in the October 02, 2007 hearing.

Ethiopia is looking for another Ras Allula Aba Nega who can defeat the current HR2003 before it passes the Senate and reaches the Desk of the President of the USA.

To the surprise of all, it might even be President Bush who might emulate Ras Allula Aba Nega to defeat this clueless and misguided bill drafted by under the influence of enemies of the United States and Ethiopia (Eritrean and Somali Terrorist Network Sympathisers and Sleeper Cell Terrorists) against our mutual interests.

All the same it is critical to see the response of Ethiopia and Friends of Ethiopia in this critical time of Millennial History.

Please read on the attached report from Reuters and BBC.



1. Ethiopia angry at proposed U.S. aid sanction
Wed 3 Oct 2007
Bryson Hull

NAIROBI, Oct 3 (Reuters) - Ethiopia on Wednesday strongly criticised a U.S. law moving through Congress that links continued aid to democratic reforms, calling it a threat to regional stability and its close military ties with Washington.

The U.S. House of Representatives on Tuesday passed the Ethiopian Democracy and Accountability Act, which demands Washington's top counter-terrorism partner in the Horn of Africa make a host of democratic changes or face security aid cuts.

The bill, which still needs U.S. Senate approval and a presidential signature, would also deny U.S. entry visas to any Ethiopian government officials involved in what it calls human rights violations, unless the president authorised a waiver.

The act -- lobbied for by parts of Ethiopia's large diaspora population in Washington -- would bar the aid unless Ethiopia accepted outside rights monitoring, fostered an independent judiciary and media, and allowed U.S.-funded aid to those ends.

It was unclear how much aid could be involved.

"The legislation also would undermine regional stability in the Horn of Africa by jeopardising vital security cooperation between the United States and Ethiopia," Ethiopia's ambassador to the United States, Samuel Assefa, said in a statement.

He said if "the irresponsible legislation" becomes law, "it would create fresh obstacles to Ethiopia's bold efforts toward comprehensive democratic reforms."

The bill exempted counter-terrorism and peacekeeping operations from any funding restrictions, roles Ethiopia is playing in the aftermath of a war to install a U.S.-backed government in neighbouring Somalia.

Ethiopia, with the strongest army in the Horn, is in the thick of several intertwined conflicts, including its backing of the Somali government against insurgents, a border standoff with Eritrea and its fight against insurgents at home.

U.S. military and counter-terrorism leaders consider Ethiopia a critical bulwark against al Qaeda operatives known to be operating in east Africa since the 1998 bombings at the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.


The congressional vote came two years after violent protests over Ethiopia's 2005 election results that left nearly 200 people dead when opposition protesters claiming vote-rigging clashed with security forces.

That, and a subsequent trial of opposition members including those who won seats in parliament, led to criticism from rights groups and the withholding of certain aid by the European Union and Britain.

Prime Minister Meles Zenawi says his government held the fairest multi-party polls in Ethiopian history. Outside observers noted some irregularities but said the polls were broadly fair.

Addis Ababa argues it has increasingly made reforms, and could not tolerate organised protests it said amounted to treason under the Ethiopian constitution.

In July Ethiopia pardoned nearly all of those convicted at the treason trial four days after their sentencing. Samuel said the presence of two pardoned opposition leaders at congressional hearings was proof of Ethiopia's democratic commitment.

Many in the West had seen Meles as a new breed of African leader, but his credentials suffered with the protests.

The Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) rebel group, which demands greater self-rule in its eastern Ethiopian region and accuses the government of atrocities, applauded the bill.

"The U.S. House of Representatives has shown that executing the global war on terrorism is not incompatible with the forceful promotion of human rights and democracy," it said.

Source: BBC

Wednesday, 3 October 2007

2. Fire engulfs main Somali market

Mogadishu's Bakara market is the city's lifeline
At least one person has died and property worth millions of dollars destroyed after fire engulfed the main market in Somalia's capital, Mogadishu.
Several looters were injured during an explosion at one of the shops in Bakara market believed to be selling arms.

Bakara market has been the hub of commercial activities in Somalia since the fall of Siad Barre 16 years ago.

But government forces say the market is a hideout for insurgents responsible for attacks against its troops.

Mogadishu has seen a rise in violence since Ethiopian-backed government troops ousted Islamists last December.

Ruin for many

Market trader Mohamed Ali Ahmed told AP news agency he was now ruined. "My shop was burnt to ashes, nothing is left," he said.

"I used to give help to people but now I am afraid I will be a freeloader myself."

Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi expressed his regret when he appeared on a local radio station.

Traders at the market say the cause of the fire is unknown but they suspect it was started during a fight between insurgents and government forces.

The BBC's Mohammed Olad Hassan in Mogadishu says the fire began on Tuesday night and spread rapidly to shops selling clothes, household goods and jewellery.

Lack of fire fighting equipment and insecurity in Mogadishu slowed down efforts to put out the fire.

Dear Patriotic Global Citizens and Friends of Ethiopia:

As we celebrate our Millennial Calendar, we need to examine every aspect of our relationship with citizens of our globe.

The baby United States which is barely 400 years of settlement and 221 years of independence took their own Racist North South Wars to Ethiopia as mercenaries to help the fading Turkish Empire. Imagine a christian south Generals of America helping a Muslim Empire just as Chrisitian Clinton was carpet bombing Christian Yugoslavia and in effect emboldening and empowering Terrorist Osama Bin Ladin in the early 1990s.

The current extremist terrorist elements were empowered by the West, especially NATO forces that supported the Yugoslavia and Soviet insurrections, led by the current leaders of the Mujaheden or the Alqaeda Network. History repeates itslelf, today, without appropriate analysis, today's US congress is being misled by former Communist Cadres of Ethiopian Exiles posing as Good Governance Democrats when in reality they are criminals wanted for genocide and crimes against humanity for mayham they led in Ethipia for 17 years. Why the US Congressmen and women do not read intelligence reports and documented world history is beyond me. We need to edcuate them in the language they know, may be via the celebrated revolving door of the K - Street or whatever it takes. Here is an excellent story to read and analyze.

The anlogy of the Southern President Clinton and these mercenary defeated Southern Generals which President Abrahm Lincoln defeated in America were routed out again in Ethiopia by patriotic generals. The difference is that we are in 2007 and this even took place in 1875, a mere 132 years difference. The same players in differnt times.

The history of our indeopendece for 7,500 years of recorded history included dealig with defeated mercenary generals even from the new world, United States of America as the following story

Today, the same United States Congress led by Repulicans and Democratic Africa Subcommittee are trying to impose new sanctions via HR 2003- the new tool of making Ethiopia submit in the 21st century to misguided loosers of Communist Derg exile Diapora Neo-Communist communities in the USA.

Please read on to contrast and compae so that we will stand up to modern day mercenaries who are selling our heritage and long term interest to K Street Mercenaries of 21st Century. Please look at the new Michael Moore Movie "Sicko" to understand how the lobbyist and US Congress work in a revolving door set up even with the White House.

The lesson is that we have to be vigilant and ensure the US congress and Executive are not misled by former Communist cadres masquerading as Good Governance Democrats and mislead the American Congress and White House when their criminal files are still open in Ethiopia and they should account for their crimes of seventeen years of Red and White Terror and the current Oragne Terror of 2005 in Addis and the cyberworld of today.

Please read on this interesting information and learn from the past to charter a better future for an improving relaitonship between the USA and Ethiopia people.

with regards

Dr Belai Habte-Jesus, MD, MPH;


The Ethiopian- Egyptian War: 1874 –1876


Egypt emerged as a powerful force in Africa during the latter stages of the decline of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire. In the second half of the 19th century, an ambitious and energetic new Khedive negotiated with the Ottomans to take control of Egypt. He intended to create an Egyptian African empire by swallowing up Sudan and Ethiopia.

For this purpose he recruited a large army staffed with European officers and Confederate officers from the American Civil War which had ended 10 years earlier. These officers were sent to Ethiopia, and the following accounts of the Battles of Gundet and Gura are drawn in large part from their diaries and other notes. The accounts are extracted from an article published in the Journal African Affairs in 193x by A.E. Robinson This account is useful as it presents a different perspective on the Ethiopia-Egypt conflict. Other accounts of these battles from Ethiopian and other sources can be found in the biography of Ras Alula and in general histories of Ethiopia.

Note: The battle sites of Gundet and Gura are both located within present-day Eritrea. Eritrea did not exist at the time. It is currently the fashion in Eritrea to hack out a separate Eritrean identity from the broader current of Ethiopian history. Therefore this period of history is ignored or deliberately twisted by Eritrean historians, and most of the younger Eritreans have no idea about it.


Gundet: 1875

Note: Colonel Kirkham was a British officer who was contracted to help train the Ethiopian soldiers. Munzinger was a Swiss adventurer who was in the service of Egypt.

In December 1874, a force of 1,200 [Egyptian] troops from Kassala, under the command of Munzinger, occupied Keren, but as protests were lodged, he withdrew. A skeleton garrison was however, left for the protection of the Roman Catholic mission (so it was said), although for nearly forty years, they had managed without such measures.

Owing to the presence of Turco-Egyptian troops within what he regarded as the Ethiopian frontier, Colonel Kirkham entrenched a force of Ethiopians at Ginda.

During the month of October, Colonel Arendup with an Egyptian force occupied Ginda without resistance. Arendup then hoisted the Turkish ensign. Colonel Arendup sent the Naib Muhammad of Arkiko to King John of Ethiopia with a message (which in reality constituted an ultimatum), whereby the immediate delimitation of the frontier was demanded. King John imprisoned the messenger, who occupied the unenviable position of being tributary to both the Turks and Ethiopians in respect to all custom duties he collected on imports and exports.

Meantime, reports reached the Ethiopians that the Gallabat garrison had been reinforced by the Egyptians, and had crossed the frontier into Ethiopian territory en-route to Gondar. This force was probably that of Munzinger Pasha, which marched from Kassala to Danakil country. It consisted of about 2,000 men, and would pass through Agordat and via the Mereb, near to Adowa. This force was ambushed, and Munzinger and nearly all his followers were killed on November 7th by Danakil tribesmen. There were practically no survivors reported.

On November 14th , Colonel Arendup’s force was attacked at Gundet, to which place it had advanced on the road to Adowa. His column consisted of 2,500 infantry, armed with Remington rifles, and 12 mountain guns. There were a number of European and American officers under his command.

Possibly due to overconfidence at the occupation of Ginda without any resistance, Colonel Arendup was unprepared for an attack, and the fact that the Ethiopians commenced firing with rifles was a complete surprise. His force was practically annihilated, despite the personal bravery of its commander. Among those killed were Colonel Arendup, Arakel Bey Nubar (nephew of the Egyptian Prime Minister), Count Zichy, and Rustem Bey. An American officer collected the survivors, and with Rauf Bey and Major Dornholtz, managed to reach Massowah.


For comparison, Haggai Erlich provides the following, more detailed description of the Battle of Gundet, based largely on a Ge’ez biography of Ras Alula written over 100 years ago.

“On 14 November, Alula crossed the Mereb river and immediately engaged forward Egyptian posts. The main Ethiopian army under the emperor (Yohannis IV) crossed the river on the night of 15-16 November. Meanwhile, Shalaqa Alula had disengaged his forces; he had completed a flanking action from the west against troops advancing from Addi Quala; and had appeared in the Egyptian rear, blocking their line of retreat. “

“On the morning of 16 November 1875, the Egyptians found themselves surrounded in a steep valley, and the battle soon turned into a massacre from which only a few of the 3,000 Egyptians managed to escape. Two thousand two hundred Remington rifles and sixteen cannons were captured by the Ethiopians, who lost some 550 dead and 400 wounded. Among the latter of whom was Alula’s brother Basha Tessema, whose wound remained unhealed for a long period.”


Gura: 1876
Note: After the defeat at Gundet, the Egyptians sent another, much larger force to attack Ethiopia in 1876. The Egyptians advanced to Gura and built a fort there.

On November 6th and 7th, the Egyptians were attacked by the Ethiopian army, (which was estimated at 60,000 men) and surrounded. Most of the Ethiopians were armed with firearms, and although they had only one field-gun, it is said to have had no effect in deciding the action.

The accounts of the American officers are silent on the point; but it is said that Rateb Pasha allowed his views to be overruled by Loring Pasha, who insisted on the ramps of the trenches which had been erected being razed, so that the artillery could have a clear zone of fire.

The gunners and infantry were enfiladed by the Ethiopians from higher ground, and the slaughter was so great that several regiments became completely demoralized. Those officers who attempted to rally their men and the survivors, were accused generally of joining in the panic, and of cowardice in the field.

The Egyptian troops and officers were called upon to fight under conditions hitherto unknown to them, and without the benefit of tried and skilled leaders. The result was inevitable. The regiment of Ismail Pasha Kamel stampeded during the action and could not be rallied.

The Ethiopians followed up their success, and closely invested Fort Gura, which they attacked in force on the 8th and 9th of March. >
On March 10th, Rashid Pasha and Osman Bey Neghib led an attack on the Ethiopians which was repulsed with loss, and both officers were killed while leading their men. From one of the accounts, this attack would appear to have been a sortie from the fort of 5,000 picked troops and artillery (Loring, p. 413).

The Ethiopians then withdrew to loot the dead and collect the rifles, etc. which the panic-stricken Egyptian troops had abandoned. Most of the artillery was lost, as well as considerable quantities of rifle ammunition.

After the withdrawal of the Ethiopians, the Egyptian troops got entirely out of hand, and burnt the dead and wounded enemies. The Ethiopians retaliated by a cold-blooded massacre of about 600 prisoners whom they had taken. Among these prisoners killed were Dr. Muhammad Ali Pasha and Neghib Bey Muhammad. Dr. Badr (who had been educated in Edinburgh) escaped by the assistance of an Ethiopian girl who discovered him, wounded.

On March 12th, an amnesty was arranged, and Monsieur Sarzac (the French consul at Massowah) went over the battlefield… the survivors of the Egyptian army were collected, and reached Massowah in May.

[Note: The battle of Gura ended Egypt’s ambitions against Ethiopia. Two of the captured Egyptian cannon can still be seen at Aksum]

Source: Ethiopedia; the free Encylcopedia for Ethiopia. A source where clear pictures about the history, languages and cultures of Ethiopia and its people is documented. This is a resource for original factual information and images from the Emperor Tewodros Ethiopian Library located in Washington DC.

ETHIOPIC:logging on Ethiopic; Ethnologue: Ethiopic

Gelada Baboon: A species of Old World Monkey found only in the Ethiopian Highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea; All about Gelada Monkeys; National Geographic Video on Gelada Monkeys ;

Ethiopian Priest (1930; A capture of an unusual turbaned Priest; such old valuable photos can be found in the Emperor Tewodros II Ethiopian Library (see useful links)

Fasilides Castle: Once the capital of Ethiopia, Gondar was founded by Fasil in 1636; and it was here where Emperor Fasil built his castle.

Blog Archive;l 2007 (8); ▼ June (1); How Ethiopians Destroyed American Confederate Armi..; ► April (1) ;Great Ethiopian Song Praises Cultural Festivities; ► March (2), Ethiopic: An African Writing System by Ayele Beker...; Quragna: A Banking System Outlawed by Iyyasu; ► January (4); Kings and Queens of Ethiopia 4470 B.C.E. to 1930 A...

The Mysterious Origin of the Flag of Ethiopia; Ethiopia's Downfall: The End of the Aksumite Empire; Ethiopian Population Types; Useful Links; Emperor Tewodros II Ethiopic Library ; Ethiopia Encyclopedia Blog; Ethnologue report for Ethiopia
Felege-Birhan NGO; Wikipedia: Ethiopia; Contributors; Ethiopia Encyclopedia
Ethiopedia; Huts for Ethiopians

Built in Addis Ababa in Apartheid Areas for the Natives
Monday, June 25, 2007
How Ethiopians Destroyed American Confederate Armies in 1875

This is the true story of how the Ethiopian army led by Atse (Emperor) Yohannes completely destroyed and annihilated an invasion force led by American Confederate generals. The humiliating part of this tragic event for the Confederate generals was that they had already been losers in the American civil wars which was fought over the question of slavery. A couple of generals have preserved the secrets of this events and how they despised the Egyptian Fellahin (peasants) and the barbarous Ethiopian patriots. This is the story of the battles of Gunda-Gundet and Gura and Arissa in which the Ethiopians completely annihilated the coalition armies of the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian and Confederate American generals as written by the American Colonel William M. Dye.

The book is erroneously titled Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia because it was more a war of the coalition forces of Egypt, the Ottomans and the Confederate Americans against Ethiopia. An illustration above from the book depicts an Ethiopian horseman, a Sudanese Kababich, an Egyptian soldier and an Ethiopian oromo fighter surrounding Pompous Egyptian rulers. The shield with the lion probably represents the Ethiopian emperor's emblem as Yohannes had 4 lions with him at all time. The Egyptians and Ottomans hatched a new and secret idea of recruiting confederate American generals and officers in 1869. These corrupt and unaware Americans were secured by Blacque Bey, the Turkish minister at Washington D.C.

A five year contract was drafted obligating the officers to serve against countries Egypt was at war with except the United States. The Americans eventually realized that they would fighting against Christian Abyssinia. The famous American general, W.T. Sherman recruited most of the forty eight Americans in confidence. One is left to ponder whether the American administration at that time was in fact knowledable about the conspiracy against Ethiopia that was hatching right under their noses. My opinion is that the United Stated knew about this conspiracy, assisted in the transportation and covered up the deal.

This was also a good way to get rid of the defeated unemployed confederate officers in Washington D.C. and the South. Following are the names of those who served the Egyptians; Brigadier Generals, W. W. Loring (Leader of Group), C. C. Sible, Carrol Tevies, C. P. Stone, Major General Henry A Mot, Majors W. C. Campbell, Parrys, Hunt, Eugene Fehet, Chansler M. Martin, W. B. Hall, White, J. D. Dennison, Charles F. Loshe, Robert Schrryler, H. G. Prout, C. Macomb Mason, Colonels Alexander Reylands, T. G. Rheet, W. H. Jenifer, Beverly Kennon, Frank Reynolds, Vanderbilt Allen, R. C. Colston, W. McE. Dye, Robert M. Rogers, Samuel H. Lockett, Charles B. Field and McIvor, Lieutenant Colonels Sparow Purdy, C. C. Long, Will Ward, Wm. W. Dunlap, James Bassel, H. B. Reed, C. J. Graves, H. C. Derrick, Captains Freeman, James Morgan, David Essex Portal, Irgens, John Savage, Drs Johnson, W. H. William, Arlson, Professor L. H. Mitchell, Misters Middleton, Testaferrata and Garnard.

In 1875, Egyptian forces under Munzinger, a Swiss, were annihilated at Arissa. This was an attempt by Ismael Pasha of Egypt to bypass Yohannis and communicate with Menelik of Shoa. The Egyptians then tried a second trick again in 1875 under the Dannish Colonel Ahrendrup Bey (Bey being a Turkish promotion).

This army of Egypt was again destroyed by Atse Yohannis at Guda Gundet in 1875. The third trick that the Eyptians and their Ottoman masters tried was to bring the Arab army of Egypt under the American Confederate Army of W.W. Loring. It is this story that is being told here because it was kept largely in the limelight due to the utter annihilation and humiliation of the “white” armies (The coalition forces of Egypt, Turkish Ottomans and Confederate Americans) by the African armies of Atse Yohannis.

In effect Ethiopia, an African country, fought three continental armies of North American led by Colonel Loring, Asia Minor led by the Ottomans and quasi-African-Arab-European Egypt led by Ismael Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt. The plans of the Khedive to conquer the “Barbarian Habashis” and take their Blue Nile Basin was childish in itself as the Ethiopians with little arms that they possessed, had a more sophisticated and intelligent plan that sent the pitiful invaders running to the shoreline of Mistewa (Massawa) where they were having real fits of nervous breakdowns.

The notable battle on the plains of Gura (coincidently Gura also means boastings in Amharic) was described by Dye and others very starkly. The Gura battle plan was arranged by the council of the Confederate Americans General Loring, Derrick and Dye and the Egyptian Osman Pasha. In this bloody fight, the Ethiopians overwhelmed the Egyptian-Ottoman-Confederate American coalition forces into oblivion. The invaders retreated after being mauled by the Ethiopian lions (literally mauled because there were 4 lions of Emperor Yohannes that growled and pawed the air in the heat of the battle).

Colonel Dye describes the Ethiopian frenzy as “beating and blowing the “Negariths and Aimbeltas arousing their barbarous souls to fury and combat”. He further describes how Dejach Hagos of Shire was killed during the battle on horseback while the cowardly Egyptian Prince Hassan rides away on his horse to Massawa and his cavalry gallop away too.

The Egyptian foot soldiers meanwhile staggered all the way to the sea shore following their leaders. Dye bitterly refers to the Egyptians as Fellahin which means peasants, not worthy of being soldiers, no doubt to relief himself of his own shortcomings. Indeed the American battle-hardened confederate armies were also fleeing the battle grounds. The infamous names of the defeated Americans were Long, Lockett, Hall, Dennison, Johnson, Wilson, Porter, Field, Martin, Dye, Colston, Stone, Gravis, Loshe, Lamson, Loring, Derrick, Wilson and Irgens.

One of the casualties of the battles against the Egyptians and their merceneries were the imperial lions of Atse Yohannis, symbols of Ethiopia. A lion or two were lost at Gundet while two were lost at Gura. Colonel Dye reports that one of these lions was stuffed and placed near a tree for all to see its majestic powers.
Throughout the fight of preserving the Independence of the country, Ethiopia always had to deal severely with enemies from within the country itself. Thus one of the products from this victory was that the Egyptians settled for a more devious method of creating a division within the people of Ethiopia by using Ethnic tensions and propaganda ploys.

The strangest character from this method was an opportunist Ethiopian known as Ras Wolde Mikael. His allegiance shifted between the Arabs and the Ethiopians. At times he laid waste to the Hamasein province and on other occasions he allied with Ras Alula to beat away the Egyptians. The method still continues in the 21st century with many Wolde Mekaels created by the Egyptians to once and for all attempt to revenge their defeat and bring powerful united Ethiopia into many weak fiefdoms that would endlessly kill each other.

The president of the United States at this time, Andrew Johnson, is described by the Miller Center as “Though Johnson was deeply committed to saving the Union, he did not believe in the emancipation of slaves”. Clearly as president he did not care about the destruction of Ethiopia and as such knew the on-goings of the Sherman-Turkish minister deal in Washington.

Further more the Center describes him as “Andrew Johnson is largely viewed as the worst possible person to have been President at the end of the Civil War. He utterly failed to make a satisfying and just peace because of his racist views, his gross incompetence in federal office, and his incredible miscalculation of public support for his policies”. His Secretary of State was a certain Seward who “worked to prevent European recognition of the Confederacy during the Civil War”.

There is no doubt that Seward, at the same time, instigated and gave the green light to the Confederate General Sherman to recruit and ship the secret mercenaries to Egypt to kill the Ethiopians and capture the Nile Basin and Maritime lands of Ethiopia. Sherman was also commander-in-chief of the United States between 1865-1883 and his recruiting of confederate armies against Ethiopia took place at this time. In the end however almighty Ethiopia prevailed.

Loring and Sherman

Posted by Ethiopedia at 2:47 PM 0 comments

Wednesday, April 25, 2007
Great Ethiopian Song Praises Cultural Festivities

Awdamet by Manalemosh Dibo
Basic Translation for Non-Amharic Speakers
A Joyous Song Praising Awdamet an Ethiopian Holiday

Its festival Times, its Awdamet, Its Amet Baal
A time to rejoice and praise thanks to Amlak, God
The majestic sun rises and casts its rays all over Ethiopia
And Awdamet begins early with the first crow of the rooster
Here and there and everywhere echoes the greetings of joys
The traditional kissing and hugging and endless salutations
Bow low bow low then kiss the knees the Elder's Knees!
On and On and On; Dehna Nachehu Dehna Nachehu?

How are you? How are the children, the cattle, the horses!
How is your health ? How is your business? Praise the Lord!
Egziabeher Yemesgen! Amen!

Thanks Amlakthe Lord!

The whole country seems like one big big Family!
The festivities! The food! The visitors! The children!
Its one big Celebration of Life,

A new beginning Amlak Yemesgen, Praise and Thanks to God
The bonfire Demera, some big, some small
Light the evening skies and from a mountain top
Like earthly twinkling stars stud the valleys and plains
Shimmering until the coldness of night turns off the flames
Bahelachen, our culture, casts good wishes, good health
Oh praise Amlak the Lord Let us praise Enamesgen
The aroma of wheat bread , the dabo or Ambasha
Like butterflies on the soft wind of early spring
Whiffs its welcome scent through out the land!

Great Awdamet Praise be to Amlak, God
How can one forget the injera and wat
With its spicy and nourishing taste
The palate asks for more and more!

Wrap the healthy morsel with soft injera
Here Gursha my friend Here Gursha my kid
Here Gursha my love, How sweet the bond created!
Oh the Feresegna, the Horseman, that chicken breast

Aptly Reserved for the House head and the Elders
Eaten lavishly and the relish shared amongst all
Until the bones remains standing like a horse
Alas, the Feresegna has been consumed

Awdamet Awdamet Praise be to Amlak, God
Traditional music from traditional Masinko and Krar
Sending their thanks and joy to One creator, Amlak Hoy
The Iskista, the shoulder and head rhythmic movement
Now this way Now that way, Sliding and Gliding along

Enkwan Aderesachehu which means Happy Holidays
Destana Tsega which means Happiness and Blessings
Amlak Yemesgen, which means Praise to the Lord
Traditional Home Brewed drink, Pass it on!!
Tej honey mead and Tella traditional Beer
Cupping the hands to pour and to taste
How colorful the Ethiopian way!

Awdamet is happiness Awdamet is blessing
Amlak Yemesgen, which means Praise the Lord
The Ethiopian Coffee Ceremony, so old so vibrant
Yet so very new to so many on just this one earth
Roasting crackling beans turn brown then black
Sending their mystic smoke high high and high
Oh how sweet the smell, here breath the aroma

Above your head it goes and down your face
Each sweep of coffee cloud with their palms
For one or so last sniffing, one last blessing
Abul, First serving for the distinguished
Tona, the second serving for good luck
Baraka, the third serving for blessing

Yes Indeed Let's celebrate Awdamet
Awdamet, gift for the Healthy Aged
Awdamet is happiness and joy
Awdamet is a blessing
Today we rejoice and Praise
But the morrow we leave to God
Light up the Shammas, the candles

Let smoke rise from the Sended incense
Wear your new clothes Spray the perfumes
Scatter Findesha popcorn and chase evil away
Where green Ketema grass covers the floor
The green of the National Ethiopian Flag
The green of the rainbow, the first flag
A sign of spring and a New Life

Hand around still the Ambasha bread
Let the Children play Celebrate Awdamet
Let us once more praise the Lord Amlak
While the Elders shower us blessings
Merekat, good will and good wishes
Love each other Forgive each other
Its the Spirit of Awdamet A time of Joy
Awdamet is happiness Awdamet is blessing
Amlak Yemesgen, which means Praise the Lord
Enkwan Aderesachehu Amlak Yemesgen Praise the Lord

Posted by Ethiopia Encyclopedia at 7:27 AM 0 comments

Thursday, March 15, 2007
Ethiopic: An African Writing System by Ayele Bekerie

This is a book with many purposes. Beyond accounting the history and principles of Ethiopic, this book challenges the accepted institutionalized theory that South Arabia is the origin of Ethiopic.

My favorite parts of the book was first, the strongly defended theory about the origin of the fisted right hand black power symbol; second, the explanation of the beginnings of b'al and the usage of grass during coffee ceremony; and thirdly, the study of Ethiopic as a pictographic form. There was a lot more to the book; for instance, the numeric system and its relation to the mystery of why God said that Abraham's name must be Abraham and not Abram ("Abraham corresponds to the sum total (numerical values of 60 (40+9+6+1+4), which when divided by 5 the total number of [Ge'ez] characters in the name reveals the 12 House of Israelites").

Also, the writing systems connection to astronomy and the calendar (there are 182 syllographs, which equals the total number of days in half a year or in one equinox). Oh, and the fact that animal skin was used for writing material because of the abundance of livestock in northern Ethiopia. Actually, animal skin is still used today - a friend of mine recently returned from Ethiopia with a large piece of cow skin, dried and then, partly shaved to be covered with a story from the Bible.

But back to my favorite parts of the book: Ayele Bekerie poses the question "What is the relationship between the African American or South African 'Black Power' salute and the ideographic character (Yä) Yäman, literally a [Ethiopic] term for a fisted right hand?

Another interesting point: Dr. Ayele links the use of grass (qétäma) to a 1700 BC script on a sandstone sphinx. On the sphinx is inscribed the term "B'alat" in the Proto-Sinaitic script (throughout the book he shows the close relationship between Ethiopic and Sinaitic writing). B'alat was the word for gods or goddesses of fire or sun.

Quoted from Porphyry de Abstinentia, "Who inhabit the most sacred region made by the Nile, began first, from the vestal hearth, to sacrifice to the celestial gods, not myrrh, or cassia, or the first fruit of things...but grass, which, as a certain soft wool of prolific nature, they plucked with their hands."
For years, in Ethiopia B'al, a Ge'ez and Amharic term for holidays associated with "abundance, festivity, and wealth," is celebrated by decorating the floor with grass (qétäma).

The final point I must highlight: Ethiopic writing system has a pictographic foundation similar to the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Dr. Ayele examines the Proto-Sinaitic pictographic scripts and its "direct relationship" to the Proto-Ethiopic script.

It excites my nerves to know that their is a great probability that such an intelligent writing design existed in sub-Sahara Africa 2000 years BC. Dr. Ayele's work challenges Ethiopianist and Africanist to do more extensive and fair archaeological work on the continent of Africa below the Sahara Desert.

Posted by Ethiopia Encyclopedia at 9:14 AM 0 comments

Friday, March 2, 2007
Quragna: A Banking System Outlawed by Iyyasu

Western banking systems use loans and interest rates to bind a creditor to a debtor. With increasingly high interest rates, often debtors are mentally, socially, and even physically chained to banks. Up to the 19th century, in Ethiopia, being chained to your creditor was literally a reality.

It is known as the quragna system and until the debt was paid off, the debtor was chained to the creditor. This harsh system was made illegal in the early 1900s by Lij Iyyasu of Wallo.

A hundred years later, to the west of Ethiopia, a woman used the same creditor/debtor binding system on her 15 year old daughter. In Massachusetts, USA, a mother chained her run-away daughter to herself "out of love."

You can find the article about the mother-daughter Quragna system at:

Learn more about Quragna by reading a book by Bahru Zewde A History of Modern Ethiopia.

All pictures are from the Ethiopian Tewodros II Ethiopic Library.

Posted by Ethiopia Encyclopedia at 11:26 AM 0 comments

Monday, January 22, 2007

Kings and Queens of Ethiopia 4470 B.C.E. to 1930 A.D.

We are listing here the magical history of the rulers of Ethiopia from Ethiopian sources. In 1914, a document listing the line of sovereigns of Ethiopia was provide to the traveller Charles Rey by Ras Teferi, Regent of Ethiopia. This extensive and continues line of Kings and Queens has yet to tell wonderful stories of Kingdoms past, a challenging task for Ethiopianists. We will attempt to scrape off the mist of history and time to reveal the grandeur of Ethiopia, also known as Abyssinia. This will be a slow process, sort of like painting the Mona Lisa with the secret smile. Modifications will be slow and an on-going event or as the Ethiopian saying goes "patience turns milk into butter"

I. TRIBE OF ORI or ARAM: Years are in BCE

1. Ori or Aram 4470 2. Gariak I 4404 3. Gannkam 4321 4. Queen Borsa 4254 5. Gariak II 4194 6. Djan I 4114 7. Djan II 4054 8. Senefrou 4034 9. Zeenabzamin 3976 10. Sahlan 3916 11. Elaryan 3836 12. Nimroud 3776 13. Queen Eylouka 3731 14. Saloug 3701 15. Kharid 3629 16. Hogeb 3529 17. Makaws 3459 18. Assa 3429 19. Affar 3379 20. Milanos 3317 21. Soliman Tehagui 3244 . The line continues with Kam.


1. Kam 2635 2. Kout (son of Kam) 2585 3. Habassi 2545 4. Sebtah 2515 5. Elektron 2485 6. Neber 2455 7. Amen 2434 8. Queen Nehasset Nais 2404 9. Horkam 2375 10. Saba II 2345 11. Sofard 2315 12. Askndou 2290 13. Hohey 2255 14. Adglag 2235 15. Adgala 2205 16. Lakniduga 2180 17. Manturay 2145 18. Rakhu 2115 19. Sabe I 2085 20. Azagan 2055 21. Sousel Atozanis 2035 22. Amen II 2020 23. Ramenpahte 2000 24. Wanuna 3 days 25. Piori I 1985 . The line continues with the Agdazian Dynasty.


1. Akbunas Saba II 1930 2. Nakehte Kalnis 1871 3. Queen Kasiyope 1890 4. Sabe II 1856 5. Etiyopus I 1800 6. Lakndun Nowarari 1770 7. Tutimheb 1750 8. Herhator I 1730 9. Etiyopus II 1700 10. Senuka I 1683 11. Bonu I 1675 12. Queen Mumazes 1671 13. Aruas (daughter of Mumazes) 7 months 14. Amen Asro I 1641 15. Ori (or Aram) II 1611 16. Piori II 1596 17. Amen Emhat I 1556 18. Tsawi 1541 19. Aktissanis 1531 20. Mandes 1514 21. Protawos 1481 22. Amoy 1460 23. Konsi Hendawi 1455 24. Bonu II 1453 25. Sebi III (Kefe) 1438 26. Djagons 1418 27. Senuka II 1408 28. Angabo I (Zaka Laarwe) 1358 29. Miamur 2 days 30. Queen Helena 1347 31. Zagdur I 1307 32. Her Hator II 1277 33. Her Hator (Za Sagado) III 1276 34. Akate (Za Sagado) IV 1256 35. Titon Satiyo 1246 36. Hermantu I 5 Months 37. Amen Emhat II 1241 38. Konsab I 1236 39. Sannib II 1231 40. Sanuka III 1226 41. Angabo II 1186 42. Amen Astate 1156 43. Herhor 1140 44. Wiyankihi 1131 45. Pinotsem I 1114 46. Pinotsem II 1073 47. Massaherta 1057 48. Ramenkoperm 1043 49. Pinotsem III 1036 50. Sabi IV 1026 51. Tawasaya Dews 1013 52. Queen Makeda 982 . Son of Makeda (Queen of Sheba or Saba) begins Solomonic line.


1. Menelik I 957 2. Hanyon 956 3. Sera I (Tomai) 930 4. Amen Hotep Zagdur 899 5. Aksumay Ramissu 879 6. Awseyo Sera II 841 7. Tawasya II 820 8. Abralyus Wiyankihi II 788 9. Aksumay Warada Tsahay 765 10. Kashta Hanyon 752 11. Sabaka II 740 12. Queen Nicauta Kandake 13. Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash 681 14. Erda Amen Awseya 675 15. Gasiyo Eskikatir ? 16. Nuatmeawn 671 17. Tomadyon Piyankihi III 659 18. Amen Asero 643 19. Piyankihi IV (Awtet) 609 20. Zaware Nebret Aspurta 568 21. Saifay Harsiataw II 556 22. Ramhay Nastossanan 542 23. Handu Wuha Abra 531 24. Safelya Sabakon 500 25. Agalbus Sepekos 478 26. Psmenit Waradanegash 457 27. Awseya Tarakos 445 28. Kanaz Psmis (son of preceding) 432 29. Apras 422 30. Kashta Walda Ahuhu 402 31. Elalion Taake 392 32. Atserk Amen III 382 33. Atserk Amen IV 372 34. Queen Hadina 362 35. Atserk Amen V 352 36. Atserk Amen VI 342 37. Queen Nikawla Kandat 332 38. Bassyo 325 39. Queen Akawsis Kandake III 315 40. Arkamen II 305 41. Awtet Arawura 295 42. Kolas II (Kaletro) 285 43. Zawre Nebrat 269 44. Stiyo 255 45. Safay 242 46. Queen Nikosis Kandake IV 232 47. Ramhay Arkamen IV 222 48. Feliya Hernekhit 207 49. Hende Awkerara 187 50. Agabu Baseheran 177 51. Sulay Kawawmenun 157 52. Messelme Kerarmer 149 53. Nagey Bsente 139 54. Etbenukawer 129 55. Safeliya Abramen 109 56. Sanay 99 57. Queen Awsena 88 58. Dawit II 78 59. Aglbul 70 60. Bawawl 60 61. Barawas 50 62. Dinedad 40 63. Amoy Mahasse 35 64. Nicotnis Kandake V 25 65. Nalke 20 66. Luzay 8 67. Bazen BCE YEAR 8 to AD YEAR 9

Non-Christian Rulers After Christian Era (AD):

1. Sartu Tsenfa Assegd 30 2. Akaptah Tsenfa Ared 38 3. Horemtaku 40 4. Garsemot Kandake VI 50 5. Hatosza Bahr Asaged 78 6. Mesenh Germasir 85 7. Metwa Germa Asfar 94 8. Adgale II 104 9. Agba 6 mo of Adgale + 6 mo 105 10. Serada 121 11. Malis Alameda 125 12. Hakabe Nasohi Tsiyon 131 13. Hakli Sergway 143 14. Dedme Zaray 153 15. Awtet 155 16. ALaly Bagamay 162 17. Awadu Jan Asagad 192 18. Zagun Tsion Hegez 197 19. Rema Tsion Geza 200 20. Azegan Malbagad 207 21. Gafale Seb Asagad 208 22. Tsegay Beze Wark 212 23. Gaza Agdur 221 24. Agduba Asgwegwe 229 25. Dawiza 230 26. Wakana (Queen) 2 days 27. Hadawz 4 months 28. Ailassan Sagal 233 29. Asfehi Asfeha 247 30. Atsgaba Seifa Arad 253 31. Ayba 270 32. Tsaham Laknduga 279 23. Tsegab 289 34. Tazer 299 35. Ahywa Sofya (Queen) 306 . The line continues with Christian rulers and Ethiopia becomes a Christian nation.

Christian Rulers After Christian Era (AD):

1. Ahywa (Sofya, mother of Abreha Atsbeha). 2. Abreha Atsbeha (partly with his mother) 332 3. Atsbeha (alone) 344 4. Asfeh Dalz 351 5. Sahle 365 6. Arfed Gebra Maskal 369 7. Adhana I (Queen) 374 8. Riti 375 9. Asfeh II 376 10. Atsbeha II 381 11. Amey 396 12. Abreha II 7 months 13. Ilassahl 2 months 14. Elagabaz I 398 15. Suhal 402 16. Abreha III 412 17. Adhana II (Queen) 418 18. Yoab 428 19. Tsaham I 430 20. Amey II 431 21. Sahle Ahzob 433 22. Tsebah Mahana Kristos 436 23. Tsaham II 438 24. Elagabaz II 444 25. Agabi 445 26. Lewi 447 27. Ameda III 450 28. Armah Dawit 464 29. Amsi 469 30. Salayba 478 31. Alameda 486 32. Pazena Ezana 493 . Kaleb continues the line as a Dynasty until Emperor Gedajan.

Kaleb Dynasty:

1. Kaleb 523 2. Za Israel 1 month 3. Gabra Maskal 537 4. Kostantinos 565 5. Wasan Sagad 580 6. Fere Sanay 603 7. Advenz 623 8. Akala Wedem 631 9. Germa Asafar 646 10. Zergaz 656 11. Dagena Mikael 682 12. Bahr Ekla 701 13. Gum 725 14. Asguagum 730 15. Latem 746 16. Talatam 767 17. Gadagosh 780 18. Aizar Eskakatir 1/2 day 19. Dedem 78520. Wededem 795 21. Wudme Asfare 825 22. Armah 830 23. Degennajam 849 24. Gedajan 850 25. Gudit (Yodit, a Jewish Queen) 890 26. Anbase Wedem 910 27. Del Naad 920 . Events ends Solomonic dynasty and begins the Zagwe (line of Moses) Dynasty

V. ZAGWE Dynasty

1. Mara Takla Haymanot (Zagwe) 933 2. Tatawdem 973 3. Jan Seyum 1013 4. Germa Seyum 1053 5. Yermrhana Kristos 1093 6. Kedus Arbe (samt) 1133 7. Lalibala 1173 8. Nacuto Laab 1213 9. Yatbarak 1230 10. Mayrari 1245 11. Harbay 1253
(Israelite rulers during Zagwe Dynasty:1. Mahbara Wedem 2. Agbea Tsion 3. Tsinfa Arad 4. Nagash Zare 5. Asfeh 6. Yacob 7. Bahr Asagad 8. Edem Asagad).
Yekuno Amlak throned and continues the Solomonic line.


1. Yekuno Amlak 1268 2. Yasbeo Tseyon 1277 3. Tsenfa Arad 1278 4. Hesba Asagad 1279 5. Kedme Asagad 1280 6. Jan Asagad 1281 7. Sabea Asagad 1282 8. Wedma Ared 1297 9. Amda Tseyon 1327 10. Saifa Ared 1355 11. Wedma Asfare 1365 12. Dawit 1395 13. Tewodoros 1399 14. Yeshak 1414 15. Andreyas 6 months 16. Hesba Nafi 1418 17. Bedl Nafi (6 mo with Andreyas) 1419 18. Amde Tseyon 1426 19. Zara Yacob 1460 20. Boeda Maryam 1470 21. Iskender 1486 22. Amda Tseyon 1487 23. Naod 1500
24. Lebna Dengel 1532 25. Galawdewos 1551 26. Minas 1555. The Emperors and Empresses moved around the realm until the establishment of Gonder as a Capital City. The line continues as House of Gondar.


1. Sartsa Dengel 1589 2. Yakob 1598 3. Za Dengel I 1599 4. Susneyos 1627 5. Fasil 1662 6. Degu-Johannis 1677 7. Adyam Sagad Iyasu 1702 8. Takla Haymanot 1704 9. Tewoflus 1707 10. Yostos 1711 11. Dawit 1716 12. Bakaffa 1725 13. Birhan Sagad Iyasu 1749 14.Iyoas 1764 15. Johannis 5 months + 5 days 16. Takla Haymanot 1772 17. Solomon 1774 18. Takla Giyorgis 1779 . The accession line continues by Princes who claimed the throne as Emperors. These Princes began the Zemene Mesafint Era.


1. T. Yasus 1784-88 2. Takla Haymanot 1788-89 3. Iskias 1789-95 4. Baeda Maryam 1795- 97 5. Junus 17976. Adimo 1797-99 7. Egwala Sion 1799-1818 8. Joas 1818-21 9. Gigar 1821-26 10. Baeda Maryam III 1826 11. Gigar (again) 1826-30 12.Iyasu IV 1830-32 13.Gabra Kristos 1832 14.Sahala Dengel 1832-40 15.Johannes III 1840-41 16.Sahala Dengel (again) 1841-55 . The end of Zemene Mesafint begins with Tewodros.


1. Theodore 1855-68 2. John IV 1868-89 3. Menelik II 1889-1913 6. Lej Yasu 1913-16 7. Zauditu (Empress) & Ras Tafari Makonnen (Regent & Heir) 1916 Negus Tafari Makonnen (King) 1928-1930 8. Haile Selassie I 1930-1974. The Royal line is terminated by Marxist and Tribalist Unknowns
1. Communist and Ethnic-oriented leaders reversed the continuity of the Solomonic line.

Posted by Ethiopedia at 2:56 PM 3 comments

Sunday, January 21, 2007
The Mysterious Origin of the Flag of Ethiopia

In this section, we shall attempt to reveal the mysterious origin and interpretation of the Ethiopian flag which has been passed down as folk lore through oral history. The Ethiopians call their flag Sendek Alama, which literally means "Sceptre Motto " or "Sceptre Symbol" or "National Flag". The Ethiopians also use the bastardized name Bandiera, unaware that it is of Italian derivative for banner or flag.

We believe that the Ethiopian flag of Green Yellow and Red is the oldest flag in the world and are presenting the wonderful and majestic story here. Herbert Vivian, a British traveler who was in Ethiopia in 1901 describes the flag of Ethiopia in his book Abyssinia as White Red White horizontal strips when he first saw it near Somadu and Gildessa close to Harar. There is even a black and white photograph of the flag. Vivian is a controversial traveler due to his rather inaccurate descriptions of Ethiopia.

Wylde however describes in a book called Modern Abyssinia (1900) the Ethiopian flag as top yellow middle red and lower green Pendants (triangle shaped). This type of flag was used by Emperor Menelik in Addis Abeba. The three pendants were later united into the traditional Green Yellow Red horizontal strips of the Ethiopian flag as we know it today.Please be aware of the updates!

Posted by Ethiopedia at 12:27 AM 0 comments

Friday, January 12, 2007
Ethiopia's Downfall: The End of the Aksumite Empire

Ethiopians love to brag about their history and the once upon a time great empire that now exists only in our memories. The Aksumite Empire was one of the grandest, richest, and most respected nations in the first 6 centuries A.D. The market flourished of gold and other riches. The merchants traded with the Roman Empire, the Egyptian Empire, the Greek Empire, the Persian Empire.

So, what happened to that great nation? No one ever discusses the fall of the Aksumite empire or even the events that led to the fall of the great kingdom.

Aksum, the capitol of the Aksumite empire, was located in the North of Ethiopia. The Empire included Djibouti, Eritrea, Yemen, parts of SW Arabia, the Red Sea, and great parts of the nile. It's most important area of control, in terms of economy, was the Red Sea allowing easy trade and international relations. Aksumites exported gold, rhinoceros horn, ivory, incense, and obsidian; in return, they imported cloth, glass, iron, olive oil, and wine.

The 4th century AD: Aksumite converted to Christianity.
The 6th and 7th century AD: Aksumite lost the SW Arabia, including Yemen, and Red Sea ports(it was taken over by Sassanian Persians). Still, parts of the Red Sea coast were controlled by Byzantine Egypt, which had good relations with Ethiopia being a Christian state. However, Sassanian Persians expanded and took control of Byzantine Egypt ports. So, Ethiopia's network on the sea declined.

The 7th and 8th century AD: the spread of Islam. Islam conquered the Arabian Peninsula and Byzantine Egypt's territory. Egypt was Aksumite's greatest trade partner. When Islam was established in Egypt, the good relations between the Aksumite (Christian) state and Byzantine (Christian) state vanished. Muslim Arabs took control of the Red Sea; and Islam spread fast to Djibouti and Somalia and other areas along the Red Sea.

The 12th century AD: Islam spreads into the mainlands of the Aksumite Kingdom, east and south of the central highlands. The native cushitic people (Oromo is one main group) who practiced indigenous religions converted to Islam. This group struggled with the Amhara-Tigray Semitic Christian people for the throne of Ethiopia.

The 11th and 12th century AD: The grand Aksumite Empire had been forced inwards cutting off much access to wealth and leaving it landlocked. Moreover, the Christian state was threatened by its new Muslim neighbors; so the Christian state focused on preserving and strengthening its religious laws. It also began to expand southward. Using its military, it spread the Aksumite culture, Semitic languages, and Christianity southward all the way to Shewa and took possession of a lot of land (it gained more land than it had before).

Around 1137, the Zagwe Dynasty gave rise. This dynasty was devoted to the Christian religion. Lalibela, along with many other churches, was constructed during this reign. The religion was very strict, devotional, and centered. There was no focus on spreading Christianity (missionary work). There was little contact with outside nations leaving the nation reliable on its own land and resources.

Source: Ethiopian Country Studies, Library of Congress

Posted by Ethiopia Encyclopedia at 11:21 AM 0 comments

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