Monday, March 12, 2007

Millennium Challenge Series 13: Acknowledging our Historical Heritage to charter a prosperous future

Dear Patriotic Ethiopians and Friends of Ethiopia:

Who is an Ethiopian and What was, is and will be Ethiopia

As we plan to celebrate the 8th Millennium on 11 Septeber 2007, it is critical to appreciate who we are, who we have been and what we can be.

Ethiopia and Ethiopians have been mentioned in historical and government documents for millennia.

More recent documents are found in the Ethiopian Orthodox church documenting in detailf events of the past 1600 years. These manuscripts and literature are found in the monastries, churches and centers of higher learning through out Ethiopia.

Acording to traditional sources, paganism and polytheism that involved worshiping different gods of heaven, the earth and sea has evolved to Judaism, Christianity and later Islam. Ethiopian Emperors have left inscriptions at Adulis that shows Sin- the Moon God, Shams- the Sun God as well as Zeus, Poseidon and Ares including Greek god and demi-god, Hermes and Heracles. It is known that temples, altars and statues were dedicated to the gods.

Ethiopian Emperors were also at times very powerful Pharoas, especially the 25th Pharoah is known to have united Upper and Lower Egypt and led the zenith Egypitian Civilization. Later the famous Nubeans- the Beja people of (Bege medir) were defeated by Emperor Ezana and he erected statues in gold, silver and bronze to the god Ares.

Monotheism flourished at the introduction of Judaism into Ethiopia which is found in detail in Kebre Negest (The Glory of the Kings). The famous story of Queen of Sheba and King Solomon is also documented in Kings and and Samuel- books of the Old Testament. Menelik the First brought with him the Ark of the Covenant which still is foud in Axum Tsion Mariam Church. The pre-Talmudic type of Judaic worship continues to be practiced by the "Bete-Israel" or the "Falashas" or Ethiopian Jews until modern times.

There were times that the whole African continent was referred to Ethiopia and even the Atlantic Ocean was referred to "Ethiopian Ocean" and there are maps to prove this account even today.
Modern Ethiopians have been challenged by neo-scholarship and western revision and there has been several attempts to understand and describe who is an Ethiopia, is it really a geogrphic location and are there specific people with this name on the African continent.

The web site at describes an Ethiopian in a very interesting way and it is portrayed here below.

The Ethiopian. The concept of Ethiopianism comes from the word Ethiopia or Utopia used by the classical thinkers and believers who described Ethiopians as Ichthyophagi (fish eating ancient people) who lived in the region of present Ethiopia.

Historically the region included Egypt, the Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and the Gulf States, as far south as Madagascar. The other reference is Kam/Ham or Kush- the Hebrew equivalent of Ethiopia or the Ethiopian. Habesh is the Arabic reference to Ethiopia and Abyssinia- the English corruption of Habesh or for the descendants of Abyss. Amhara which means Am=people and Hara= freedom or Am-Hara=Free People is the named attributed to the community of Ethiopians. Amharic the current language spoken in Ethiopia is the language of these Free People otherwise known as Ethiopians.

The Amhara= Free Society. The Amhara or Free People is not a name designed to identify a specific tribe, clan or ethnic group as some misguided and misinformed people would like the world to understand. In fact all the 120 or so ethnic groups fall under the same name of Free People and Ethiopia. All the three races of Shem, Ham and Japhet are represented in classical Ethiopia that traditionally covered present day Southern Egypt, Northern Sudan, Southern Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya up to Madagascar.

Home to Ancient Kemetic Civilization. It is critical to remember that the name Middle East did not exist before Second World War and used to be part of North Africa and old Ethiopian kingdom or the Kemetic Civilization of Nubia, Cush /Axum and Pharos, etc. The Amharas are the amalgamation of free people made of over 120 different clans, tribes and ethnic groups, such as the Adares, Agaws, Afars, Akale Guzai, Gondares, Gojames, Gurages, Hadiyas, Hararies, Isas, Menzes, Merhabetes, Oromos, Serai, Somalis, Tigreyans, Wolaita, Woloyes, etc. and constitute the mother of humanity as proven by the discovery of Lucy the ancient remains of mankind in the Rift Valley System. The Amhara is the liberated man or woman who belong to the Free Society, free from the shackles of ethnic, religious and linguistic bigotry and prejudices that restrict the Divine Gift of freedom to which all mankind is endowed by the creator.

The Priest King Order of Line of Melchezidek. The Ethiopian living tradition and belief maintains that Ethiopia is a derivative of Ethiopis, the name given to one of the first sons of the race recognized by Melchezidick the Priest King of Salem (Genesis 14:14-20) and is used by the ancients, particularly the Greeks to identify the unique complexion of the Ethiopian (sun burnt faces, etc.) The prophet Jeremiah refers to this image as …”Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots…” (Jeremiah 13:23). The Ethiopian is the Biblical incarnate of old and new as the living testimony of God’s covenant with mankind. This is shown and witnessed in the lives of true Ethiopians (Free People) all over the world today.

Orders and Decorations. His Imperial Highness Crown Prince Zera Yacobe Asfa Wossen presented His Excellency Belai Habte-Jesus with the necessary documents delegating the authority over and responsibility for the various Orders, Awards and Decorations of the Imperial Ethiopian House of Sellassie in London on the 17th of November 2001. Included in those documents were the establishment orders for the Imperial Order of Saint Mary of Zion and the ennoblement edicts for the Order of Imperial Baronets. All documents were placed in His Imperial Majesty's library in London.

Here is a very interesting article posted at that makes some in-roads to show that the Red Sea Region is part and parcel of Ethiopia. Is this a new discovery or a revision of Ethiopian history. Please read on.

A Marriage of Equals
and the Role Eritreans Played
Engineer Ghirma
March 10, 2007
Dejazmach Afewerk W.S. Ras Alula Aba Nega General Aman M. Andom
Ethiopian History depends on who wrote it; and when it was written. I am not a
Historian; however I have read enough of Ethiopian history, as they say, to attempt
some damage! I have read for starters, that Queen Saba gave birth to her son Menelik I,
the son of the biblical King Solomon of Israel, in Asmara specifically on the banks of Mai
Bela River. Without venturing into the slippery slopes of Ethiopian History again, I can
point cautiously, to archeological findings within present day Eritrea which predate
Axum; or at least match it. One theory which may support the flight of Ethiopian
Monarchy from Medri Bahri (present day Eritrea) to Axum was the alleged constant
threat of incursions into Ethiopia from across the Erythrean Sea / Bahre Ertra / Red
Sea. The preferred Ethiopian sea port back then was Adulis/Zula.
If some Ferenj stranger half way around the world, asks you whether you are an
Ethiopian, trust me, you are an Ethiopian; regardless of which part of Ethiopia (Eritrea
included) you originate from! How many a time have we in the Diaspora, gazed at a
stranger in a foreign land, and said among ourselves: “yegnan ager sew ymeslal or
tmeslalech”? Often times the stranger(s) would acknowledge by smiling and nodding in
the affirmative, as if we read each other’s mind. What a feeling!
By far more battles in the defense of the Ethiopian Empire were launched from within
Eritrea than any other region. Be it against Egypt at Gundet and Gurae or against Italia
at Dogali, most of Ethiopia’s enemies met their fate inside Eritrea. Guess who fought in
those battles in most predominant numbers? Eritreans of course: By virtue of their
proximity, the local people knew the terrain of the battleground better than any other
group. Moreover, intelligence information about the invaders, made Eritrean contribution
towards victorious outcomes inevitable. The dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam had erected
a landmark depicting Ras Alula’s victory at Dogali; which was ironically, later demolished
by Isaias Afwerki.
Marriage among the different Ethnic groups had various objectives. One such objective
was for long distance traveling convenience. The idea was to provide accommodation
for family members during extended trips away from home; be it for business or for
pleasure. Significant population movements from one region to another were common. It
is recorded in Ethiopian History, for example, that the Gurage Nationality has its origins
in Gurae, in Akeleguzay (Eritrea). The Bilien people in Keren originated from Gojam.
The Adere Nationality in Harar originated from Seraye (Eritrea). The ancestors of the
people living in many areas of Asmara are from Tigrai; who accompanied Ras Alula
when he was Emperor Yohanes’ representative in Eritrea. One such area in Asmara is a
place called Tselot. The significance of Tselot is that it is common knowledge among
Eritreans, for being the ancestral home of Isaias Afwerki. Yes, Isaias Afwerki is Tigrawai!
Technically Isaias can be court-martialed for being a traitor (a joke)! Last but not least,
Somalis are said to have migrated from Hamasien. There is sufficient evidence of that,
which is reflected in the names of cities like Kebri Dehar within Somali State.
It is only befitting for the “Eritrean Nation” to rejoin the rest of Ethiopia’s “Nations
and Nationalities”. Eritrea gave us Zer’ay Deres; the man who went to battle on behalf
of Ethiopia single handedly; with only a sword as a weapon against the Fascist army in
Roma! Imagine that! Then there were Abraha Deboch and Moges Asgedom; young
men who challenged Italia’s Rodolfo Graziani and made a daring attempt to kill him in
Addis Ababa in 1937. Their gallant attempt rekindled the support of the League of
Nations for Ethiopia, which eventually led to the defeat of Italia. I am happy to hear that
plans are underway to build a monument in Addis Ababa in honor of the two Ethiopian
In the field of diplomacy, few can rival Dr. Lorenzo Taezaz. Simply stated he was a
genius in all walks of life. He was Ethiopia’s Permanent Representative to the League of
Nations in Geneva during World War II. The following is a quote from Dr. Daniel
Kindie’s paper titled “Dr. Lorenzo Taezaz And The Italo-Ethiopian War (1935-1941)”:
“Lorenzo, who lacked neither ideals nor insight, successfully played several roles
as a pressman, diplomat, intelligence officer, agitator, and counselor, and
discharged his responsibilities with great distinction. In the process, he displayed
great fortitude and endurance. For no one can dispute the key role he played in
Ethiopia’s liberation. But more than most, Lorenzo’s commitment to duty must
have strengthened Haile Selassie’s faith in education.” To read the complete report
please go to [].
A special mention is warranted for the great General Aman Michael Andom, the
darling of the Ethiopian Army; also known as the Desert Lion. General Aman Andom led
Ethiopian forces to the Korean war. He was the recipient of the highest honor, from the
UN for his accomplishments; and thereby brought honor to Ethiopia in the process.
General Aman is perhaps best remembered for his heroics in Ogadien in the early
sixties; much like the gallant Dejazmach Afewerk Wolde Semayat who led the
Ethiopian resistance army in the Ogadien during the Italian invasion in1935. General
Aman was elected by the Derg regime as its Chairman in 1974, primarily because of his
immense popularity within the then Third Army Division stationed in Harar. He was well
known for his fair mindedness; which was why he was opposed to the proposed
wholesale executions of the detained ex-Ministers and other dignitaries, belonging to
Emperor Haile Selassie’s regime; fifty-nine in all. The unwarranted executions took place
immediately after General Aman was killed.
General Aman was also opposed to escalating the conflict against the guerilla forces in
Eritrea; opting for a diplomatic solution to the problem. He was very popular among the
Eritrean people to the extent that he was perceived as a threat to ELF and EPLF on a
personal level. My Eritrean sources tell me that the people were beginning to turn
against the ELF and EPLF after General Aman’s elevation to Chaiman of the Derg. He
was a uniting force among all Ethiopians including Eritreans. For the record, if the
cowardly Mengistu Haile Mariam had not murdered General Aman Andom on November
23, 1974, after the latter’s brave last stand against Mengistu’s tanks, Eritrea’s “war of
liberation” would have been early on, nipped in the bud by Eritreans themselves!
In the context of Ethiopian Nations and Nationalities, Eritrean role has been significant
since the beginning of time. One without the other is unrealistic. The nationalities on
either side of the fictitious border must demand rectification of this egregious error in
our history. The idea that a border line drawn at Badme, Tserona, Zala’nbesa, Bure,
along Irob Land, or any other spot along the common border will separate Ethiopians on
either side permanently is a farce! It will never work! The time is now, to resolve this
nonsense, once and for all peacefully. The Eritrean people will do very well under
the Ethiopian Constitution.

No comments:

Post a Comment