Friday, December 28, 2007

The Black Gold and White-Oil- Millennial Renaissance Transformation Tools

Global Strategic Enterprises, Inc for Peace and Prosperity-
Promoting Win-Win Synergestic Partnerships for Peace and Prosperity via the Seven Principles and key disciplines(7Es: Educaiton+Empowerment+Emotion+Energy+Ecology+Enterprises)

The Millennial Renaissance Transformation Agenda is based on Security+Peace and Prosperity that is based on the synergesitic symbiosis of nature and nurture.

Our body and the ecology at large regenerates itslef on a continuous basis by recycling nutrients and organic and non organic elements. Some of these transformations take place on a long time span and at times fairly short when earth quakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, tsunamies and then long period draght occurs.

Water which makes up more than 75% of the Global mass continues to shape life on earth with the other terrestrial and celestial light energy. Besides the Ocean water, the river basins have been the source of resources to sustain civilizations.

Ethiopia is considering its two most important natural resources as its tool for its Millennial Transformation Strategy: Water and Coffee are referred to as "White oil" and "black gold" respectively.

The two critical commodities are water and coffee. Water is referred to as the "White Oil" that built the Nile Basin Civilizatins and coffee is the "Black Gold"- the symbol of Ethiopian Millennium Renaissance.

Both commodities or rather natural products are going to be the engine of change as they are going to fuel the human engine (coffee) and water (the renewable energy source) of the Nile Basin Civilizaitons.

We will deal with coffee first and then move on the water table of Ethiopian Highlands which are going to transform the region for a long time to come.

Type Hot Beverage ; Manufacturer Varied
Country of origin Ethiopia

Introduced 800 AD
Coffee is a widely consumed stimulant beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called beans, of the coffee plant.

Coffee was first consumed in the 9th century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia.[1] From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe and the Americas.[2] Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.[3]

Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica. These are cultivated in Latin America, southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried.

The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to various degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented by a variety of methods.

Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[4]

It was banned in Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. Coffee is an important export commodity: in 2004, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries;[5] and in 2005, it was the world's seventh largest legal agricultural export by value.[6]

Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed.[7]

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Biology
4 Cultivation
4.1 Ecological effects
5 Processing
5.1 Roasting
5.2 Storage
5.3 Preparation
5.4 Presentation
6 Social aspects
7 Health and pharmacology
7.1 Caffeine content
8 Economics
9 References
10 External links


The English word coffee first came into use in the early- to mid-1600s, but early forms of the word date to the last decade of the 1500s.[8] It comes from the Italian caffè.

This, in turn, was borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahveh, and the Arabic qahwa (قهوة) collectively.[9] The origin of the Arabic term is uncertain; it is either derived from the name of the Kaffa region in southern Ethiopia, where coffee was cultivated, or by a truncation of qahwat al-būnn, meaning "wine of the bean" in Arabic. In Eritrea, "būnn" (also meaning "wine of the bean" in Tigrinya) is used.[10] The Amharic and Afan Oromo name for coffee is bunna.


Main article: History of coffee

Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress receiving a cup of coffee from a boy.Coffee use can be traced at least to as early as the 9th century, when it appeared in the highlands of Ethiopia.[1]

According to legend, Ethiopian shepherds were the first to observe the influence of the caffeine in coffee beans when the goats appeared to "dance" and to have an increased level of energy after consuming wild coffee berries.[11] The legend names the shepherd "Kaldi." From Ethiopia, coffee spread to Egypt and Yemen,[12] and by the 15th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa.

In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten year trip to the Near East:[13]

“ A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu. ”

From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink".

The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.[2] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale, and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broeck smuggled seedlings from Aden into Europe in 1616.[14] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon.[15]

Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. It was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.[16]

When coffee reached North America during the colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe. During the Revolutionary War, however, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was partly due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[17]

After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.[18]


Main article: Coffea

A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantationThe Coffea plant is native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia.[19] It belongs to a genus of 10 species of flowering plants of the family Rubiaceae. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that may grow 5 meters (16 ft) tall when unpruned.

The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 centimeters (3.9–5.9 in) long and 6.0 centimeters (2.4 in) wide. It produces clusters of fragrant, white flowers that bloom simultaneously. The fruit berry is oval, about 1.5 centimeters (0.6 in) long,[20] and green when immature, but ripens to yellow, then crimson, becoming black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but from 5 to 10 percent of the berries[21] have only one; these are called peaberries.[22] Berries ripen in seven to nine months.


Main article: Coffee varietals

Map showing areas of coffee cultivation
r:Coffea canephora
m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica.
a:Coffea arabica.Coffee is usually propagated by seed.

The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation.[20]

The two main cultivated species of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor than arabica. For this reason, about three-fourths of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.[19]

However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50 percent more caffeine than arabica.[1]

For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head and to lower the ingredient cost.[23] Other cultivated species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively.[1]

Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.[19] Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity.[24]

These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[25] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java, or Kona.

Ecological effects

Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided habitat for many animals and insects.[26] Today, farmers use sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy.

This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.[27]

Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[26]

The American Birding Association has led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees, which it says are sustainably harvested.[28] While certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value,[29] and some researchers are concerned that the push for "shade grown" coffee may actually be encouraging deforestation in ecologically sensitive regions.[30]



Roasted coffee beansMain articles: Coffee processing and Coffee roasting Coffee berries and their seeds undergo multi-step processing before they become the roasted coffee with which most Western consumers are familiar. First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand.

Then, the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds—usually called beans—are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is finished, the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, generating massive amounts of highly polluted coffee wastewater. Finally the seeds are dried and sorted and labeled as green coffee beans.[31]

The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted.[32]

The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost but increases in volume, causing it to become less dense.

The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.[33]

During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean.[34] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (400 °F), other oils start to develop.[33] One of these oils is caffeol, created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.[15]

Grades of coffee roasting; from left: unroasted (or "green"), light, cinnamon, medium, high, city, full city, French and Italian[35]Depending on the color of the roasted beans, they will be labeled as light, cinnamon, medium, high, city, full city, French, or Italian roast.[35]

Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine, resulting in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids destroyed by longer roasting times.[36] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.[37]

Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans.[33] Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo.

Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.[15] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.[15]


This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (November 2007)

Once roasted, coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. Ideal conditions are air-tight and cool. Air, moisture, heat and light are the environmental factors in order of importance to preserving flavor in coffee beans.

Typical commercial coffee containers in which coffee is purchased are generally not ideal for long-term storage. Some newer packages contain one-way valves which allow for the release of carbon dioxide (a byproduct of the roasting process) while preventing air from entering the bag.

Main article: Coffee preparation

Espresso brewing, with dark reddish-brown cremaCoffee beans must be ground and brewed in order to create a beverage. Grinding the roasted coffee beans is done at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home. They are most commonly ground at a roastery then packaged and sold to the consumer, though "whole bean" coffee can be ground at home. Coffee beans may be ground in several ways.

A burr mill uses revolving elements to crush or tear the bean, an electric grinder chops the beans with blades moving at high speeds, and a mortar and pestle grinds the beans to a powder.[38]

The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grind. The most common grinds are between the extremes; a medium grind is used in most common home coffee brewing machines.[39]

Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled,steeped, or pressured. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method.[40] It is prepared by powdering the beans with a mortar and pestle, then adding the powder to water and bringing it to a boil in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a briki. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface.[40]

In the Far East, coffee is often brewed with tea. In China this is known as 鴛鴦 or "yun yeung." These are the characters representing the female and male Mandarin duck. This is in reference to the fabled duck that finds a partner and mates for life. The idea being that "coffee-tea" makes a lovey-dovey pair, in which the flavor of each beverage blends so well with the other, the two become inseparable.

The addition of tea mellows out the coffee and, consequently, no dairy products (which are not as popular in the Far East because of a greater incidence of lactose intolerance) need to be added. This coffee may be drunk with or without sugar.[citations needed]

Machines such as percolators or automatic coffeemakers brew coffee by gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker, hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while absorbing its oils and essences.

Gravity causes the liquid to pass into a carafe or pot while the used coffee grounds are retained in the filter.[41] In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by pressure created by boiling. The water then passes downwards through the grounds due to gravity, repeating the process until shut off by an internal timer.[41]

Coffee may also be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière). Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a coffee press and left to brew for a few minutes. A plunger is then depressed to separate the coffee grounds, which remain at the bottom of the container. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the beverage, making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine.[42]

The espresso method forces hot, but not boiling, pressurized water through ground coffee. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9-10 atm) the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the amount of coffee to water as gravity brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution.

A well prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface.[39] The drink "Americano" is popularly thought to have been named after American soldiers in WW II who found the European way of drinking espresso too strong. Baristas would cut the espresso with hot water for them.

Presentation is an integral part of coffeehouse service, as illustrated by the fanciful design layered into this latte
[edit] Presentation Once brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. Drip brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served with no additives (colloquially known as black) or with either sugar, milk or cream, or both. When served cold, it is called iced coffee.

Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. In its most basic form, it is served alone as a "shot" or in the more watered down style café américano—a shot or two of espresso with hot water.[43] The Americano should be served with the espresso shots on top of the hot water to preserve the crema. Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte,[44] equal parts espresso and milk froth make a cappuccino,[43] and a dollop of hot, foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato.[45]

A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[46] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in Japan and South Korea. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold.

Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States.[47] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee and costs about 10 cents a cup to produce. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated.[48]

Social aspects

A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900)See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee, and caffè for specifically Italian traditions.

Main article: Social aspects of coffee Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern day Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.[citation needed]

Coffee became the substitute beverage in place of wine in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden.[11] Coffee drinking was briefly prohibited to Muslims as haraam in the early years of the 16th century, but this was quickly overturned.

Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca, accused of being a heretic substance, and its production and consumption was briefly repressed.

It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV.[49] Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited to Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to its banning in England, among other places.[50]

A contemporary example of coffee prohibition can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a religion with over 13 million followers worldwide, which calls for coffee abstinence. The organization claims that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee.[51]

This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith, in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly", which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[51]

Health and pharmacology

Main article: Coffee and health

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Most studies are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.[7]

Health benefit of Coffee:

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[52] and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.[53] For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[54]

Potential side effects of Coffee:

Coffee's negative health effects are mostly due to its caffeine content. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[55]

Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia[56], and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[57]

Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.[58]

Caffeine content

Caffeine moleculeDepending on the type of coffee and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. On average, a single cup of coffee of about 207 milliliters (7 fluid ounces) or a single shot of espresso of about 30 mL (1oz) can be expected to contain the following amounts of caffeine:[59][60][61]

Drip coffee: 115–175 mg
Espresso: 30 mg
Columbian Espresso: 40 mg
Brewed/Pressed: 80–135 mg
Instant: 65–100 mg
Decaf, brewed: 3–4 mg
Decaf, instant: 2–3 mg


Main article: Economics of coffee

Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.[3] Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to 7 million metric tons annually by 2010.[62]

Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but in recent years Vietnam has become a major producer of robusta beans.[63]

Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers, because of the lower cost. Four single roaster companies buy more than 50 percent of all of the annual production: Kraft, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, and Sara Lee.[64]

The preference of the "Big Four" coffee companies for cheap robusta is believed by many to have been a major contributing factor to the crash in coffee prices,[65] and the demand for high-quality arabica beans is only slowly recovering. Many experts believe the giant influx of cheap green coffee after the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement of 1975–1989 led to the prolonged price crisis from 1989 to 2004.[66] In 1997 the price of coffee in New York broke US$3.00/lb, but by late 2001 it had fallen to US$0.43/lb.[67]

The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated pre-harvest price, began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labelling program in the Netherlands. In 2004, 24,222 metric tons out of 7,050,000 produced worldwide were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34 percent to 0.51 percent.[68][69] A number of studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it.

A study in 2002 found that fair trade strengthened producer organizations, improved returns to small producers, and positively affected their quality of life.[70] A 2003 study concluded that fair trade has "greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families"[71] by providing access to credit and external development funding[72] and greater access to training, giving them the ability to improve the quality of their coffee.[73]

The families of fair trade producers were also more stable than those who were not involved in fair trade, and their children had better access to education.[74] A 2005 study of Bolivian coffee producers concluded that Fairtrade certification has had a positive impact on local coffee prices, economically benefiting all coffee producers, Fairtrade certified or not.[75]

The production and consumption of "Fair Trade Coffee" has grown in recent years as some local and national coffee chains have started to offer fair trade alternatives. [76]


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^ Associated Press (2005-12-06). Report: Coke, Pepsi faceoff brewing. CNN Money. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.

^ Regarding liquid coffee concentrate: Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2005, page C4, Commodities Report

^ Hopkins, Kate (2006-03-24). Food Stories: The Sultan's Coffee Prohibition. Retrieved on 2006-09-12.

^ Allen, Stewart. The Devil's Cup. Random House. ISBN 978-0345441492.

^ a b Who Are the Mormons?. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

^ Klatsky, Arthur L.; Morton, Cynthia, Udaltsova, Natalia, Friedman, Gary D. (12 June 2006). "Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes". Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (11): 1190–1195. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190.

^ Pereira MA; Parker ED, Folsom AR. (2006). "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.". Arch Intern Med 166 (12): 1311–1316. PMID 16801515.

^ Bakalar, Nicholas (August 15, 2006). Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits. New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
^ Mahmud, A.; Feely, J. (2001). "Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform". Hypertension 38 (2): 227–231. PMID 11509481.

^ The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency
^ "A coffee can make you forgetful", BBC News, 20 July 2004,

^ MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Caffeine in the diet
^ Coffee and Caffeine's Frequently Asked Questions from the alt.drugs.caffeine,, Newsgroups, January 7, 1998

^ Bunker, M. L.; McWilliams, M. (January 1979). "Caffeine content of common beverages". J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 74: 28–32.

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^ Alex Scofield. Vietnam: Silent Global Coffee Power. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.

^ Stein, Nicholas (9, 2002). Crisis in a Coffee Cup. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.

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^ Rickert, Eve (December 15, 2005). "Environmental effects of the coffee crisis: a case study of land use and avian communities in Agua Buena, Costa Rica". M.Sc. Thesis, The Evergreen State College.

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^ Ronchi, L. (2002). The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their Organizations: A Case Study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. University of Sussex. p25–26.

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^ Taylor, Pete Leigh (2002). Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks, Colorado State University, p18.

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[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
CoffeeWikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

CoffeeWikibooks Cookbook has an article on
CoffeeLook up Coffee in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.Coffee & Conservation and Gourmet Coffee Facts - Many resources on sustainable coffee, including reviews, especially shade coffee and biodiversity
Coffee and caffeine health information - A collection of peer reviewed and journal published studies on coffee health benefits is evaluated, cited and summarized.

Benjamin Joffe-Walt and Oliver Burkeman, The Guardian, 16 September 2005, "Coffee trail" - from Ethiopian village of Choche to London coffee shop

Coffee Tree - Growing and cultural information with soil types and pruning instructions

Coffee on a Grande Scale - Article about the biology, chemistry, and physics of coffee production

This is Coffee - Short tribute to coffee in the form of a documentary film (1961), made by "The Coffee Brewing Institute". The movie includes some do's and don'ts of making "the perfect cup of coffee" and an overview of different ways to enjoy coffee throughout the world.

An Illustrated Coffee Guide - Side-by-side diagrams of a few common espresso drinks
F. Engelmann, M. E. Dulloo, C. Astorga, S. Dussert and F. Anthony (2007). Complementary strategies for ex situ conservation of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genetic resources. A case study in CATIE, Costa Rica, Topical reviews in Agricultural Biodiversity.

Bioversity International, Rome, Italy..
Descriptors for Coffee (Coffea spp. and Psilanthus spp.)

[hide]v • d • eCoffee
Facts about coffee History of coffee - Economics of coffee - Coffee and health

Species and varieties List of varieties - Coffea arabica: Kenya AA, Kona, Jamaican Blue Mountain - Coffea canephora (robusta): Kopi Luwak - Coffea liberica: Kape Barako

Major chemicals in coffee Caffeine - Cafestol
Coffee bean processing Coffee roasting - Home roasting coffee - Decaffeination

Common beverage preparation Coffee percolator - Espresso (lungo, ristretto) - Drip brew (from coffeemakers) - French press -

Turkish coffee - Instant coffee - Chemex - Moka Express

Popular coffee beverages Americano/Long black - Café au lait/Café

con leche - Cafe mocha - Cà phê sữa đá - Cappuccino - Cortado - Greek frappé coffee - Indian filter coffee - Irish coffee - Latte/Flat white - Macchiato (espresso, latte) - Iced coffee - Iced cappuccino - Red eye

Coffee and lifestyle Social aspects of coffee - Coffeehouse - Caffè - Café - Caffè sospeso - Coffee cupping - Coffee break/Fika

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